Information is defined as the ultimate solution of uncertainty; it renders the question of “what a thing is” redundant and so defines both the nature and the essence of its attributes. The meaning of information has various meanings in various contexts. In scientific jargon, information is known as data, though it differs from data in the sense that it is abstract and general in nature. Other examples of sources of information in scientific contexts include results of scientific experiments, laws of nature and discoveries made by scientists, and the like.
The etymology of the word indicates that it is derived from the term of Greek information, which was meant to mean the things that were known (at least by the people who understood it) concerning a particular subject. Thus, information may also be taken as knowledge, though it is typically used in the narrower sense of knowledge regarding a particular area, as in the definition of a person, a city, or something else. Information may also be taken as data or knowledge expressed in writing, though information in this sense is also relative and not absolute.
Information has several forms and senses in the human communication system. Information can be in the form of a set of facts or data that are essential for an understanding of a certain topic, as in the definition of a person. Information can also be in the form of an opinion, which can either be negative or positive, and is usually expressed through words such as opinion, belief, or recommendation. Information can also be in the form of a proposition, which can either be a statement of faith, a proposal concerning a certain course of action, or a declaration of purpose.
In French, information, which includes all the sources of information mentioned above, also includes les sources de information, which literally translates to “all the sources of knowledge.” This phrase is important, because the use of the word information in this context excludes both verbal communication and written expression, as in a thesis, article, book, or other output of a human being. In English, the expression informativeness denotes a certain degree of familiarity and informed trust in the information produced by another person. In French, the expression, informativeness, on the other hand, signifies “the familiarity and trustworthiness of the information.” This suggests that in French, one has to use additional words and phrases to achieve the same meaning, whereas in English, the meaning of informativeness is self-evident.